This textbook has been developed with proper balance of ‘software’ i.e., socio-cultural and economic aspects and ‘hardware’ i.e., technical aspects, and with special attention to gender issue, including experiences in Bangladesh. It deals with water supply and sanitation appropriate for rural and low-income urban communities in Bangladesh and consists of three parts. The first part deals with the key elements needed for sustainable water supply and sanitation and the related software aspects like institutional and financial aspects, the user community, gender awareness, health, hygiene etc. The second part deals with technical aspects of environmental sanitation like waste management, wastewater collection, transportation, treatment, stormwater and sullage drainage etc. The third part of the content deals with water supply aspects contained with sources of water, water quantity and quality, treatment, water transmission and distribution and low cost water supply technologies. The book has been developed for students studying water supply and sanitation and their teachers at technical institutions in Bangladesh. It is also meant for professionals already working in the sector, who can use the textbook for reference.View Table of Contents
Provision of arsenic free water is urgently needed for immediate protection of health and well being of the people living in arsenic affected areas. In most situations, substitution of tubewell water by an alternative safe and reliable source of water supply is not an easy task. Treatment of arsenic-contaminated tubewell water is one prominent option in the acute arsenic affected areas in Bangladesh and India. This publication comprises a compilation of papers presented at the BUET-UNU International workshop on Technologies for Arsenic Removal from Drinking Water. The papers describe a broad range of activities in the areas of research, development and evaluation of various arsenic removal technologies. It is anticipated that the information contained in this document will be useful in understanding the current technological developments in arsenic removal as well as their limitations. This effort is also useful in identifying the areas needing further improvement for successful implementation and adaptation of technologies to rural conditions.View Table of Contents
The sources of water available in Bangladesh for development of alternative water supplies are groundwater, surface water and rain water. An estimated 29 million people, exposed to arsenic contamination in excess of 50 µg/L through 27% contaminated shallow tubewells and few production wells in urban centers, will require alternative water supply. Four groundwater based options, six surface water based options and few rainwater harvesting techniques have been experimentally adopted as alternative water supply options in Bangladesh. On the other hand, thirty community and household level arsenic removal technologies have been tried in Bangladesh to reduce arsenic contents of water of contaminated tubewells to acceptable levels. Deep tubewells, dug/ring wells, treatment of surface waters and few arsenic removal units show good potentials for water supply in arsenic affected areas and are suitable for adoption in the national program. Most options are site specific and no single option can provide arsenic safe water in all areas or to people having wide variation in socio-economic conditions. Piped water supply, irrespective of source should be given priority where feasible considering convenience and better quality control. Rainwater harvesting has good potential at household level but a system completely based on rainwater appears to be too costly and the method is yet to be popular in Bangladesh. Standard manuals should be developed for all options for uniformity in practice.View Table of Contents
This publication is an outcome of the International Workshop on Arsenic Mitigation in Bangladesh held in Dhaka. The workshop focused on some important technical issues regarding hydrogeological and health aspects of arsenic contamination and alternative water supply options for arsenic mitigation. The issues were discussed in three parallel technical sessions, attended by local and international experts in the relevant fields. The three theme papers and the recommendations of the workshop published in this book, summarize some crucial aspects of the arsenic problem in Bangladesh and provide for the foundation of a comprehensive arsenic mitigation strategy for the country.View Table of Contents
This publication is a compilation of papers presented at the BUET-UNU International symposium on Fate of Arsenic in the Environment. The papers broadly describe the fate of arsenic extracted through tubewell water and transported with surface water, its presence in water-soil-plant environment and food chain. The leaching characteristics of arsenic from arsenic-rich sludges are also discussed in the papers. This publication has been intended to be useful to the scientists, engineers, researchers, policy planners and decision-maker working for arsenic mitigation in the arsenic countries.View Table of Contents
The document is actually a manual of training programme on the same title given which was intended to be helpful to bring about changes in terms of knowledge, skill and attitude among the officials of DPHE to improve their job performance in the field. The objectives of this training programme are to develop participatory management and planning skill and knowledge on social issues for sustainable water supply and sanitation facilities. The training would help them to build capacity to play the role of the facilitators in the changed situation. The course content has been developed primarily for the training of field level engineers of the aforesaid agency. However, it could also be used for other target groups of ITN Bangladesh.View Table of Contents
It is a collection of selected technical papers that were presented at the second International Conference on Bangladesh Environment and presents a snapshot of Bangladesh environment at the present time, as understood by the experts from all over the world. There have been a few positive changes in the recent years. The move towards unleaded gasoline, banning of polythene bags, phasing out of old and Two Stroke Engine Vehicles (TSEV), and measures against illegal encroachments on the Buriganga river are some of the remarkable achievements. Growing environmental awareness and mobilization of pro-environment forces have made the difference. Yet, much remains to be done. Air and water remain dangerously polluted. Arsenic continues to take a painful human toll. Indiscriminate disposal of industrial effluents, sewage, household and medical wastes poses major hazards. Water logging and shrinking of forests and bio-diversity remain major concerns. Possible global warming and climate change looms on the horizon as serious long-term problems. The papers in these volumes expose the nature of these problems and highlight on some technically feasible solutions.View Table of Contents
Arsenic contamination of groundwater has been recognized as a great threat to water supply and public health in many countries in the world. This publication is intended to update the knowledge base in all aspects of arsenic contamination keeping Bangladesh in the focus. All the major issues such as hydrogeology, water, soil, food contamination, health and social consequences, analytical aspects along with chemistry and fate of arsenic in the environment has been discussed at length in the context of Bangladesh. This publication is a continuing endeavor of ITN-Bangladesh to disseminate information pertinent to water supply issues of national and international importance.
The textbook “Water Supply & Sanitation – Rural and Low Income Urban Communities” intended for graduate level created a great impression amongst the students and teachers of Engineering Universities and Institutes and also amongst the professionals working in the water supply and sanitation sector. The main reason of this acceptability is that unlike other published books on Environmental Engineering, this book deals not only with technical aspects but also with socio-economic and gender aspects related to water supply and sanitation. After the successful publication of the book written in English, immense requests were emerging from different professional levels for a bangle version of the book. And initiated by such proposals, the cumbersome job of retranslating the text book has been performed and the outcome is here.
Inadequate planning is a persistent problem in development. Implementation assigns too much emphasis on physical results and too little on processes, policy issues and the impact of the project. A modest investment in improved planning pays off in terms of better project and direct savings. The development of the Logical Framework Approach was in response to address these problems which is a management method developed for use in teams of varying size and diverse composition. LFA is a general analytical tool and the full benefit of LFA can be achieved only through systematic training of all parties involved and methodological follow-up. LFA analyses the project in its wider context and the core concept of LFA is cause and effect. This publication deals with the concept of LFA, the project context and its elements, LFA workshop and overview and the use of LFA approach which aim to provide information for learning and using LFA as a tool in project planning and management.
Building capacity within a sector involves a variety of aspects of which human resources development is indispensable. The single most important tool to facilitate human resources development is training. Development of ‘training skill’ is a primary requisite in building a resource base, set with master trainers who will develop trainers for the sector. These trainers at different levels will in turn transfer skills to others to improve sector capacity. This publication has the potential to make significant contribution to development of human resources in the water supply and sanitation sector. The document maintains a logical sequence in organizing the different aspects of training. It starts with the concept of training followed by objective setting, training needs assessment and design of training modules, sessions and programs. The document elaborates on a variety of tools and procedures of training. It introduces a number of participatory tools and supplements them with examples and exercises to clarify different concepts and practices.
A total of 301 delegates and guests from nine Country Delegations (Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Maldives, Myanmar, Nepal, Pakistan and Sri Lanka) and other local and international organisations, participated in the South Asian Conference on Sanitation (SACOSAN), held in Dhaka, Bangladesh, from 21 – 23 October 2003. SACOSAN was a high-level conference, with ministerial representation from each of the participating countries. Other delegates also came from the public and private sectors, civil society, external support agencies, academia and the media. All delegates were actively engaged in formulating, advocating or implementing sanitation policy at a managerial or professional level in South Asia.
The proceedings apart from ‘The Dhaka declaration on Sanitation’ entailed nine country papers, 10 thematic papers and three keynote papers in addition to speeches from dignitaries in the inaugural and closing ceremony.
This book is a compilation of articles on contemporary environmental issues and challenges selected from papers presented at the International Symposium on Environmental Management, ISEM 2004.
In response to the global call, the GoB recognized the need for a National Sanitation Strategy paper and accordingly decided to develop the strategy paper. The process of developing the National Sanitation Strategy started in a meeting of the National Sanitation Taskforce held on 10 June 2004. A committee was formed comprising ITN-BUET, LGD, DPHE and Sanitation Secretariat with Director of ITN-BUET as its Convenor and was given the responsibility to draft a national sanitation strategy. Active participation of UPI, DPHE, LGED, Sanitation Secretariat, WaterAid Bangladesh, WSP-WB, Unicef, WSSCC-B, VERC, Danida, NGO Forum for DWSS, WHO and Plan Bangladesh enriched the national strategy paper.
A participatory approach was adopted in developing this strategy. Consultative meetings were organized with stakeholders from the central to the grass roots level. Experience gathered from interaction with community people and LGI representatives assisted in formulating this pragmatic strategy paper. Comments from different stakeholders reinforced the strategy paper further.
This publication includes a compilation of selected papers presented at International Symposium on Environmental Sustainability (ISES) 2006 along with invited keynote papers. The papers cover a wide range of issues including environmental sustainability, water supply and sanitation, transportation, issues related to climatic change, environmental policy strategies and integrated water resources management
Training programs are organized to enhance knowledge of or to disseminate messages to a target group. Now in order to maintain quality need assessment for training, good planning and resource utilization in terms of money and persons are vital. However, for the managers to understand how far the quality is maintained it is important to assess the quality of the training program with the help of suitable indicators. The assessment with those indicators will also help the management identifying some critical aspects such as: the strong and weak areas of the program, the areas that deemed appropriate for the participants and possible directions for the future programs.
At present the training programs are being evaluated by the participants of the respective training program. The evaluations are based on a set of questionnaire set in a format. The participants are often seen completing the format hastily almost at the end of the program when they are about to leave the program. So, well thought evaluations are seldom available. For a balanced evaluation it is required to assess the training program by both the participants and the training managers. Furthermore the assessment should cover all the critical activities of a training program. In this context ITN-BUET has developed a Quality Assurance System or briefly QA System for the training programs by which a balanced evaluation of a training program can be carried out. This document is the manual of that Quality Assurance System model.
The book has been developed for students studying environmental engineering focused on solid and hazardous waste treatment and management and their teachers at technical institutions in Bangladesh. It is also meant for professionals already working in this SHWM sector, who can use the textbook for reference. This book comprises of 11 chapters where the first chapter covers general description of solid waste management (SWM) and historical background of SWM system. It also describes the stream of practice of SWM system in Bangladesh as well as institutional aspects and legal framework that exist at present in the country. The second chapter includes composition and physical properties of solid waste, the mass balance theory during energy evolve in any treatment facility. It also includes the case study of banning polythene and its affects in improving quality of the environment in Bangladesh. Chapter three comprises of reduction of solid waste especially at source, on site processing of waste and transportation of waste. The next chapter describes the collection and transferring of waste. It also describes the design of an economic collection system. Chapter five describes recycling and reuse of waste. It also describes material recovery facilities that exist mostly in developed countries but here it is emphasized on practicing this technology in developing countries as well.
From chapter six to chapter ten, the treatment facilities of solid waste are critically discussed. Chapter six describes the anaerobic treatment of waste where biogas production in economic reactor is discussed with emphasis. Biogas, which can play a vital role in renewable energy sector of Bangladesh, is also discussed in this chapter. Chapter seven discusses aerobic treatment/composting technology which is the most suitable option of treatment of solid waste in Bangladesh. Here, an innovative self turning reactor (STR) is introduced as a new treatment option of composting, especially for Bangladesh. Incineration is mostly practiced in the developed world as a treatment option of solid waste. However, sometimes the emission of carbon and dioxin are ignored, which is adverse to the climate. Chapter eight discusses briefly about the incineration technology practiced in SWMS. It also includes pyrolysis and thermal gasification technologies of treating waste. Ultimate disposal of the waste with adequate safety process are explained in Chapter nine. The following chapter discusses the hazardous waste management and details of treatment facilities needed for this type of waste. Finally, chapter eleven describes briefly the life cycle analysis of integrated solid waste management.
Bangladesh happens to be in a geographic zone where the impact of climate change is severe. Population density in this part of the world is very dense. Thus impact of climate change - even if it happens for a small zone, impacts a huge number of population. Adaptation to this changing climate is a national issue. The similar issues are being in the table of discussion of the decision makers at the national and international level. In making proper policy for climate change adaptation there is a huge need of the local information and local knowledge. Unfortunately, the accumulation of such knowledge is really scarce about this part of the world. This book makes an effort in accumulating local data which are the key issues for preparing the National policy at the very micro level. The technical analysis is relevant to the local issues and the local needs. The issue of impact of climate on water happens to be the prime target of the book. Water on the other hand happens to be a resource that governs the livelihood of most of the people, especially those whose livelihood are dependent on agriculture, fisheries etc. Flood is a major water related disaster in Bangladesh for long. There are quite a number of literature covering floods in Bangladesh. With the changed climate - drought is appearing to be an emerging disaster in this country. This book makes an effort to incorporate the drought and its trend in a scientific manner. Drought and it's impact on the citizens are going to be key issues in the adaptation policy for this country.View Table of Contents
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